MARKETS

food

The food industry is under increasing pressure to meet the needs of a growing world population that is becoming more urbanized.

In the industrialized countries there is an upward trend towards convenience foods that are nutritious, healthy and easy to prepare.

We provide innovative solutions for preparing, separating, further processing, preserving, chilling, packaging and freezing a wide variety of meat, poultry, fish, seafood, oils and fats, fruit, vegetables, dairy products, bread, confectionary and food ingredients.

From standard plant systems to customized solutions, Tetco is using his design capability to meet optimum hygiene and quality standards, while operating efficiently and sustainably. Our technical expertise is complemented by project management, planning and cost control services to help our customers achieve flexible and cost-effective food production.

The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing, refining and distribution. Modern society consumes large amounts of fuel, and the energy industry is a crucial part of the infrastructure and maintenance of society in almost all countries.

In particular, the energy industry comprises:

  • the petroleum industry, including oil companies, petroleum refiners, fuel transport and end-user sales at gas stations
  • the gas industry, including natural gasextraction, and coal gas manufacture, as well as distribution and sales
  • the electrical power industry, including electricity generation, electric power distributionand sales
  • the coalindustry
  • the nuclear powerindustry
  • the renewable energy industry, comprising alternative energyand sustainable energy companies, including those involved in hydroelectric power, wind power, and solar power generation, and the manufacture, distribution and sale of alternative fuels
  • traditional energy industry based on the collection and distribution of firewood, the use of which, for cooking and heating, is particularly common in poorer countries

 

Since the cost of energy has become a significant factor in the performance of economy of societies, management of energy resources has become very crucial. Energy management involves utilizing the available energy resources more effectively; that is, with minimum incremental costs. Many times it is possible to save expenditure on energy without incorporating fresh technology by simple management techniques. Most often energy management is the practice of using energy more efficiently by eliminating energy wastage or to balance justifiable energy demand with appropriate energy supply. The process couples energy awareness with energy conservation.

The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. Central to the modern world economy, it converts raw materials (oil, natural gas, air, water, metals, and minerals) into more than 70,000 different products. The plastics industry contains some overlap, as most chemical companies produce plastic as well as other chemicals.

“Polymers and plastics, especially polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polycarbonate comprise about 80% of the industry’s output worldwide”.[11] These materials are often converted to fluoropolymer tubing products and used by the industry to transport highly corrosive materials.Chemicals are used in a lot of different consumer goods, but they are also used in a lot of different other sectors; including agriculture manufacturing, construction, and service industries.[11] Major industrial customers include rubber and plastic products, textiles, apparel, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and primary metals. Chemicals are nearly a $3 trillion global enterprise, and the EU and U.S. chemical companies are the world’s largest producers.

From the perspective of chemical engineers, the chemical industry involves the use of chemical processes such as chemical reactions and refining methods to produce a wide variety of solid, liquid, and gaseous materials. Most of these products serve to manufacture other items, although a smaller number go directly to consumers. Solvents, pesticides, lye, washing soda, and portland cement provide a few examples of product used by consumers.

The industry includes manufacturers of inorganic- and organic-industrial chemicals, ceramic products, petrochemicals, agrochemicals, polymers and rubber (elastomers), oleochemicals (oils, fats, and waxes), explosives, fragrances and flavors

The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services (including sewage treatment) to residential, commercial, and industrial sectors of the economy. Typically public utilities operate water supply networks.

The water industry includes water engineering, operations, water and wastewater plant construction, equipment supply and specialist water treatment chemicals, among others.

The water industry is at the service of other industries, Such as food and beverage, oil and gas, steel production plants and all other industries which required different water quality.

Water quality standards and environmental standards relating to wastewater are usually set by national bodies.

  • In the UK, the Drinking Water Inspectorateand the Environment Agency.
  • In the United States, drinking water standards for public water systemsare set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) pursuant to the Safe Drinking Water Act. EPA issues water pollution control standards in conjunction with state environmental agencies, pursuant to the Clean Water Act.
  • For countries within the European Union, water-related European Union directivesare important for water resource management and environmental and water quality standards. Key directives include the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 1992 requiring most towns and cities to treat their wastewater to specified standards, and the Water Framework Directive 2000, which requires water resource plans based on river basins, including public participation based on Aarhus Convention
  • International Standards (ISO) on water service management and assessment are under preparation within Technical Committee ISO/TC 224.

steel industry, the business of processing iron ore into steel, which in its simplest form is an iron-carbon alloy, and in some cases, turning that metal into partially finished products or recycling scrap metal into steel. The steel industry grew out of the need for stronger and more easily produced metals. Technological advances in steelmaking during the last half of the 19th cent. played a key role in creating modern economies dependent on rails, automobiles, girders, bridges, and a variety of other steel products.

The steel industry remains at the heart of global development. It is forecasted that in 2019 and 2020 global steel demand was expected to continue to grow, but growth rates would moderate in tandem with a slowing global economy. However, uncertainty over the trade environment and volatility in the financial markets continue and could pose downside risks to this forecast.

The studies confirmed that the steel industry employs more than 6 million people and that for every 2 jobs in the steel sector, 13 more jobs are supported throughout its supply chain, in total around 40 million jobs globally.

 

Material standards are specifications that specify material properties:

Typically may include, among others:

  • Physical properties
  • Mechanical properties
  • Quality standards or requirements, like surface finish or specific performance criteria

Organizations that develop and publish material standards include:

  • ASTM
  • ISO
  • DIN
  • AWS
  • AMS
  • ASME
  • SAE
  • … and many more

 

As the most important standard

ASTM’s steel standards are instrumental in classifying, evaluating, and specifying the material, chemical, mechanical, and metallurgical properties of the different types of steels, which are primarily used in the production of mechanical components, industrial parts, and construction elements, as well as other accessories related to them. The steels can be of the carbon, structural, stainless, ferritic, austenitic, and alloy types. These steel standards are helpful in guiding metallurgical laboratories and refineries, product manufacturers, and other end-users of steel and its variants in their proper processing and application procedures to ensure quality towards safe use.